Fourteen well-described caffeine withdrawal symptoms factor into three clusters

Author
Ozsungur, Stephen · Brenner, Darren · El-Sohemy, Ahmed
Published January 2009
Journal Psychopharmacology
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Abstract

Abrupt cessation of caffeine often results in several withdrawal symptoms among habitual caffeine consumers.

The objective of the study was to determine whether caffeine withdrawal symptoms co-exist as clusters in some individuals.

Withdrawal symptoms and caffeine intake were assessed for men (n = 126) and women (n = 369), aged 20-29, using a caffeine habits questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, respectively. Principal components factor analysis was used to identify common underlying factors among 14 well-described caffeine withdrawal symptoms. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine if the likelihood of reporting a withdrawal factor was associated with habitual caffeine consumption.

The 14 withdrawal symptoms were grouped into three factors termed “fatigue and headache”, “dysphoric mood”, and “flu-like somatic”. The likelihood of reporting the fatigue and headache and dysphoric mood factors increased with higher levels of habitual caffeine consumption. Compared to <100 mg/day of caffeine, the ORs (95% CI) of reporting the fatigue and headache factor with a habitual intake of 100-200 mg/day and >200 mg/day were 1.97 (1.21, 3.21) and 4.44 (2.50, 7.86), respectively. The corresponding ORs (95% CI) for the dysphoric mood factor were 1.55 (0.96, 2.52) and 3.34 (1.99, 5.60).

The 14 well-described caffeine withdrawal symptoms factor into three clusters, suggesting the existence of three distinct underlying mechanisms of caffeine withdrawal. Increasing habitual caffeine consumption is associated with an increased likelihood of reporting the fatigue and headache and dysphoric mood symptoms, but not the flu-like somatic symptoms.

Reviews

  • I was really a cafine addict. I had been drinking 3 pots of "Good" coffee, morning to night about 20 cups of coffee for years. Then one day, I broke out into a sweat and was very dizzy. I felt so bad my wife to me to emergency. The doctors found my heart skipping every third beat. They couldn't find anything and told to go a cardiologist. When he found I was drinking 3 pots of coffee a day, he had a fit. He told me that, that much cafeine would cause missing heart beats and to stop drinking so much "good" coffee and drink decaf. On the way home, I told my wife, if I couldn't drink good coffee, I wouldn't drink any coffe. Well, in about 1 1/2 days later, I am setting in my recliner and I start hurting all over my body, every joint and muscle and sweat in running out of the hair on my head. I missing every third beat of my heart. I told my wife if this isn't the big one and we are going to hospital or I am having one hell of a cafine with drawal. I was going to have to do something. My told me she had some coffee with cafine left over from breakfast and I could try that first. She went out to the kitchen and brought me a cup of coffee. Believe it or not, in 10 minutes all of the joint pain was gone. I stopped sweating and in about 30 minutes my heart was back to near normal. Today I drink half caf or decaf, but when I start feeling my muscles start to hurt, I drink one cup of regular coffee and the pain goes away. I still love my caffeine. But, if it is drinking regular coffee and having missing heart beats, or drinking decaf and not having any, guess which coffee I pick Bob Miller Lapel, Indiana tweetie43@embarqmail.com Written by Anonymous user (IP:67.236.132.219), October 11, 2009, 2:15 AM UTC

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Details

Title
Fourteen well-described caffeine withdrawal symptoms factor into three clusters
Author
Ozsungur, Stephen · Brenner, Darren · El-Sohemy, Ahmed
Year
2009
Journal
Psychopharmacology
Document Type
Research article
Language*
eng
Subjects
Caffeine · Cessation · Withdrawal · Dependence · Fatigue · Mood · Dysphoria · DSM · ICD · Human

Fields edited by Q-Sensei or Q-Sensei's users are marked with an asterisk (*).
This is Version 3 of this record. Q-Sensei Corp. added this version on November 3, 2009. It is an edited version of the original data import from IngentaConnect.com. View changes to the previous version or view the complete version history.